Nanorods generally refer to a one-dimensional cylindrical (or polygonal cross-section) solid nanomaterial with a short length, a straight longitudinal shape, and a scale ranging from a few nanometers to hundreds of nanometers. It has received strong attention in the material science community, and can be used in in vitro diagnosis and in vivo treatment in biomedicine, as well as in sensors and optical components.
- The field of catalysis: At the same temperature and chemical and physical environment, the gold nanorods coated with palladium or platinum have higher catalytic activity and better stability than the same amount of pure palladium or platinum catalysts. Especially in the case of light (such as sunlight), the gold nanorods in this composite catalyst can absorb light energy and convert it into thermal energy. This photothermal conversion increases the local temperature in the range of more than ten nanometers on the surface of gold nanorods by tens to hundreds of degrees Celsius. On the one hand, the increase of local temperature provides temperature activation for the catalytic reaction on the surface of nanoparticles, on the other hand, it saves the energy needed to heat the whole solution system, so it is a greener and more energy-saving catalyst.
Figure 1. Virus-Sized Gold Nanorods.
- The field of solar cells: Some researchers have prepared a new type of zinc oxide nanostructure, namely three-dimensional dendritic nanorod structure, which has large pores, is conducive to the entry of incident light, and is connected up and down, which is conducive to the transmission of electrons, so it is very suitable for use in solar cells.
- The field of cancer treatment: Photothermal therapy of nano-photothermal conversion materials is a new method for cancer treatment, which has obvious curative effect and little side effects, so it has attracted the attention of researchers at home and abroad.Tellurium has unique optoelectronic properties and is widely used in gas sensing, optoelectronic devices, photonic crystals and other fields. Some researchers have designed a multi-functional rod-like tellurium nanomaterial with high photothermal conversion efficiency and high photothermal stability. Under the irradiation of near-infrared laser, the valence band electrons of tellurium nanorods transition to the conduction band, leaving a vacancy in the valence band, resulting in photothermal effect, so as to achieve the synchronous thermotherapy of tumor and achieve the goal of high efficiency and low toxicity. This study broadens the types of semiconductor photothermal materials, provides a new type of photothermal agent with high efficiency and low toxicity, and extends the application of nano-tellurium in biological field.
Figure 2. Structural characterization of tellurium nanorods.
- The field of sensors: Monodisperse or coupled gold nanorods have a strong surface electric field enhancement effect and can be used as Raman enhancers in the application of surface enhanced Raman scattering. Gold nanorods Raman enhancers have high physical and chemical stability, long storage time and service life, which makes gold nanorods have excellent application opportunities in sensors based on Raman scattering signals. In addition, the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) properties of gold nanorods can be significantly affected by the media in the range of several nanometers around the gold nanorods, that is, the surface plasmon resonance summit of gold nanorods is red-shifted with the increase of the refractive index of the media. The relative magnitude of redshift can be measured by refractive index sensitivity. This property is that gold nanorods can be used for the detection of trace molecules.
- Wei Huang, Yanyu Huang, Yuanyuan You, Tianqi Nie, Tianfeng Chen (2017) "High-Yield Synthesis of Multifunctional Tellurium Nanorods to Achieve Simultaneous Chemo-Photothermal Combination Cancer Therapy" Adv. Funct. Mater. 27, 170-178
- Catherine J. Murphy. (2019). ”Virus-Sized Gold Nanorods: Plasmonic Particles for Biology.” Acc. Chem. Res. 52, 8, 2124–2135