Nanomaterials Synthesis
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    Nanotechnology involves the ability to build functional devices based on the controlled assembly of nanoscale objects for specific technical applications. Alfa Chemistry has many years of research and development experience in the nano field, and can provide customers with nano material synthesis services.

    We are using different methods to synthesize various nanomaterials, such as physical methods, chemical methods, as well as biological methods. If you are interested, please contact our development experts. We make sure that you will get something valuable from us.

    Physical Methods

    Solvothermal synthesis

    The process involves the use of solvents at medium to high pressure (usually between 1 atm and 10000 atm) and temperature (usually between 100 ℃ and 1000 ℃) to promote the interaction of precursors during the synthesis process.

    We use this method to prepare thermodynamically stable and metastable states, including new materials that are not easily formed by other synthetic methods.

    Aerosol-based process

    It is a common method for industrial production of nanoparticles.


    The sol-gel process is very suitable for the synthesis of oxide nanoparticles and composite nanopowders. Its main advantages are low processing temperature, versatility and flexible rheology allowing easy molding and embedding.

    Atomic or molecular condensation

    This is mainly used for metal-containing nanoparticles. The bulk material is heated in a vacuum to produce a stream of vaporized and atomized material, which is directed to a chamber containing an emotional or reactive gas. Due to the collision between metal atoms and gas molecules, the rapid cooling of metal atoms leads to the condensation and formation of nanoparticles.

    Spray drying

    It is a method of removing solvents from solutions and suspensions, based on injecting droplets into a gas stream, heating them to a temperature of 100-300°C, and then separating solid particles.

    Cryochemical synthesis

    It is a set of methods for the synthesis of substances and nanomaterials based on low-temperature chemical processes. Commonly used is a low-temperature chemical synthesis technique using aqueous solutions.
    The solution, suspension, or chemical co-precipitation product of the initial solution component containing the cation of the synthetic material in a stoichiometric ratio is quickly frozen and freeze-dried in a vacuum, and then thermally decomposed. The product of this synthesis is usually oxide powder with a grain size of 40-300 mm.

    Sn and Cu oxide nanoparticles deposited on TiO<sub>2</sub> nanoflower 3D substrates by Inert Gas Condensation technique. Fig 1. Sn and Cu oxide nanoparticles deposited on TiO2 nanoflower 3D substrates by Inert Gas Condensation technique. (Kusior A, et al. 2016)

    Chemical Methods

    Inert gas condensation

    This is a bottom-up method of synthesizing nanostructured materials, including two steps. The first step is the evaporation of the material, and the second step involves rapid controlled condensation to produce the desired particle size.

    Arc discharge

    We use an electric arc to evaporate the material directly. Usually, a cluster size of up to about 50 atoms is deposited on the target. We use arc discharge heating to produce ultrafine powders of Fe, Si, Sic, and A2O3.

    Laser ablation (LA)

    This is a process of focusing the laser beam on the surface of the sample to remove material from the illuminated area. It has been considered and used in many technological applications including: the production of nanomaterials, the deposition of thin metals and dielectric films, the manufacture of superconducting materials, etc.

    Laser pyrolysis

    This is usually classified as a gas phase synthesis process and is also used in Nanoshel to produce nanoparticles. In this type of synthesis route, when a sufficient degree of supersaturation of condensable products is reached in the gas phase, the formation of nanoparticles starts suddenly.

    Ball Milling

    Alfa Chemistry uses this method to reduce the size of nanoparticles.

    Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE)

    It can be regarded as a special case of single crystal film growth and evaporation, which is a highly controlled evaporation of various sources in an ultra-high vacuum of usually 10-10 Torr. We use MBE to synthesize various films.

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD)

    It is a chemical process used to provide high-quality, high-performance and solid materials. Nanoshel has vertical and horizontal CVD for the production of various materials.

    Biological Synthesis

    Nanoparticles synthesis by plant extracts

    It provides a single-step biosynthetic process. Alfa Chemistry uses geranium extract, aloe vera plant extract, camphor stem and neem leaf extract to produce gold and silver nanoparticles and many other nanoparticles.

    Nanoparticles synthesis by bacteria

    We have the ability to use bacteria to produce and continuously circulate nanoparticles outside the cell, the size range of which is 10-20 nanometers. Bacteria are also used to synthesize gold nanoparticles.

    Nanoparticles synthesis by yeast

    We used Candida glabrata and Schizosaccharomyces pombe to synthesize cadmium nanoparticles. We also used an extremophilic yeast strain isolated from acid mine drainage to study the biosynthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles.

    Nanoparticles synthesis by bioparticles

    We can use biological particles such as viruses, proteins, peptides, and enzymes for nanoparticle biosynthesis.

    A mechanistic scheme with graphical representation about the synthesis of metal nanoparticles from microbes.Fig 2. A mechanistic scheme with graphical representation about the synthesis of metal nanoparticles from microbes. (Gahlawat G, et al. 2019)


    1. Kusior A, et al. (2016). “Sn and Cu Oxide Nanoparticles Deposited on TiO2 Nanoflower 3D Substrates by Inert Gas Condensation Technique.” Applied Surface Science. 380: 193-202.
    2. Gahlawat G, et al. (2019). “A Review on the Biosynthesis of Metal and Metal Salt Nanoparticles by Microbes.” RSC Adv. 9: 12944-12967.
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