In recent years, the application of nanomaterials in the field of batteries has made a great progress. Nanomaterials as battery materials can effectively improve the battery capacity and life. For lithium ion batteries, nanometer active materials have the characteristics of larger surface, smaller depth of lithium ion insertion and extraction, which makes the electrode has a small degree of charge and discharge polarization, high reversible capacity and long cycle life under large current. In addition, the high voidage of nanomaterials provides free space for the migration of organic solvent molecules, which makes the organic solvent have good compatibility and are suitable to be used as electrolyte. Therefore, nanometer new battery materials have attracted more and more attentions.
As a new kind of battery material, nanomaterials can be applied in various batteries, including lithium ion batteries, fuel cells and the others.
Figure 1. Schematic diagram of the lithium ion battery.
There are many kinds of materials that make up batteries, which can be divided into the following categories.
Figure 2. An example of carbon nanotubes used as anode material for lithium ion battery.