In recent years, the application of nanomaterials in medical diagnosis has aroused great interest due to their superior performance compared with traditional materials. Many different application areas have been identified, from monitoring diseases or treatments to identifying tissue types in cases where transplantation is required. Alfa Chemistry extensively explores nanomaterials for medical diagnosis, including organic or inorganic materials, or a combination of both, that is, hybrid nanomaterials.
Organic nanomaterials, including carbon nanotubes, nanocrystals, liposomes, dendrimers, micelles, hyperbranched organic polymers, molecularly imprinted nanostructures, and polymer hydrogel nanoparticles, have been widely used for imaging and treatment Agent.
Inorganic nanomaterials such as quantum dots, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, metal nanoparticles, and metal oxides have attracted great attention in medical diagnosis, especially in the construction of biosensing and biosensors. These materials have important applications for various molecular imaging technologies, including magnetic resonance imaging, optical imaging, and ultrasound imaging technologies.
The unique characteristics of nanomaterials also allow the use of a wide range of diagnostic methods, such as surface modification with nanomaterials to obtain more available binding sites for immobilizing receptor molecules, and the use of nanoparticle-labeled disease biomarkers to enhance the signal to improve the sensitivity and specificity of bioassays.
Nanomaterials have been expanding the status quo of molecular diagnosis, instant diagnosis, disease treatment, and personalized medicine. Alfa Chemistry provides a survey of medical diagnostic technology based on nanotechnology.
Figure.1 Schematic of NanoFlare structure and function. The NanoFlare contains a monolayer of antisense DNA adsorbed to the surface of a 13-nm spherical gold nanoparticle. A reporter flare sequence is hybridized to the recognition sequence, which contains a fluorophore (red). The dye is quenched in close proximity to the gold surface. The reporter flare is displaced when complementary mRNA (blue) binds the recognition sequence, providing a fluorescent signal. (Halo T. L, et al. 2014)
Figure.2 AuNP-based immunoassays for the detection of hantaan virus (HTNV) and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). (A) Immuno-PCR assay for HTNV detection using AuNP probes dually functionalized with antibody (Ab) and double-stranded (ds)DNA. (B) Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS)-based assay for detection of RVFV using Raman reporter dye-coated AuNPs and magnetic NPs (MNPs).. (Draz M. S, et al. 2018)